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History of Kwara State, Nigeria

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About Kwara State, Nigeria

Kwara (Yoruba: Ìpínlẹ̀ Kwárà) is a state in Western Nigeria. Its capital is Ilorin. Kwara is located within the North Central geopolitical zone, commonly referred to as the Middle Belt. The primary ethnic group is Yoruba, with significant Nupe, Bariba, and Fulaniminorities.

History

Kwara State is one of the 36 states that make up the Federal Republic of Nigeria, Africa’s most populous country. Kwara State shares her boundaries with the Republic of Benin at her West and the Niger River at her North.

The capital city of Kwara State, Ilorin, is situated 306km inland from the coastal city of Lagos and 500km from the federal capital, Abuja. Major towns include Ilorin, Offa, and Jebba, located on the Niger River. Other towns include Patigi, Erin-lIe, lIoffa, Adeleke Igbewere, Ejidongari, Osi, Lafiagi, Gure, Afon, Kaiama, Isanlu-lsin, Omu-Aran, Egbejila, lIota, Iponrin and Igbaja.

Related Post: Ilorin International Airport and Location

Kwara State was created in May 1967, as one of the first of 12 states to replace the nation’s four regions. Originally the state was known as West Central State but the name was changed to Kwara, a local name for the Niger River. The size of the state has been reduced over the years, as new states have been created within the federation. The total landmass of Kwara State today is 32 500 square kilometers.

Kwara State is known as ‘The State of Harmony’ on account of the peaceful relations that exist among its multicultural and diverse population of about 2.5 million people. Followers of the three great religious faiths to be found in Nigeria, Islam, Christianity and traditional, coexist within the state.

Facts and Figures

Capital:                          Ilorin

Area:                             36,825 km

Population:                     2,591,555 (2005 est.)

Major Languages:            Yoruba, Ebira, Nupe, and Hausa.

Governor:                       Abdulfatah Ahmed (APC)

Date Created:                  27th May 1967

Population Rank:             Ranked 31st

Population

As of 2006, the population of Kwarans was 2.37 million based on the Nigeria 2006 Census. This population size constitutes about 1.69% of the Nation’s total population having relied upon immigration for population growth and socioeconomic development.

Residents of the state are sometimes referred to as Kwarans.

Local Government Areas

Kwara State consists of sixteen Local Government Areas. They are:

  • Asa
  • Baruten
  • Edu
  • Ekiti
  • Ifelodun
  • Ilorin East
  • Ilorin South
  • Ilorin West
  • Irepodun
  • Isin
  • Kaiama
  • Moro
  • Offa
  • Oke Ero
  • Oyun
  • Pategi

Tourism

Drummers in Ijomu Oro village, Kwara State.

Important tourist attractions in Kwara State include Esie Museum, Owu waterfalls, Imoleboja Rock Shelter, Ogunjokoro, Kainji Lake National Parks and Agbonna Hill Awon Mass Wedding in Shao. There is also Sobi Hill amongst others which is the largest landform in Ilorin, the state capital.

Transport

The Nigerian Railway Corporation extends services from Lagos through the state to the northern part of the country. The Ilorin Airport is a major center for both domestic and international flights and has now been built up into a hub for transportation of cargoes.

Economy

Agriculture is the main source of the economy and the principal cash crops are: cotton, cocoa, coffee, Kolanut, tobacco, beniseed and palm produce.

Mineral resources in the state are Gold, limestone, marble, feldspar, clay, kaolin, quartz and granite rocks.

Industry

Industries in the state include Dangote Flour Mill, Lubcon Lubricant Company, Kam Industries Nigeria Ltd, Tuyil Pharmacy Nig Ltd, Padson Industries NiG Ltd, Kwara Breweries, Ijagbo Global Soap and Detergent Industry, United Match Company, Tate and Lyle Company, Resinoplast Plastic Industry, Phamatech Nigeria Limited, Kwara Textile and Kwara Furniture Company all in Ilorin. Others are Paper Manufacturing Industry, Jebba, Okin Foam and Okin Biscuits, Offa, Kay Plastic, Ganmo and Kwara Paper Converters Limited, Erin-ile. Others are Sugar Producing Company, Bacita, Kwara animal Feed Mall, Ilorin and the Agricultural Products Company.

Education

Image result for Kwara State Education

Kwara has a federal university, the University of Ilorin, a state university, Kwara State University, two polytechnics, Kwara State Polytechnic and Federal Polytechnic Offa, three colleges: the college of education, Ilorin, school of Health technology, Offa and college of Nursing, Ilorin. It is also home to three Private universities; Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Crown Hill University, Eiye N’korin, Al-Hikmah University, Ilorin and Summit University, Offa. There is also a navy school and aviation college.

Schools include Emmanuel Baptist College in Ilorin.

Sports

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Sporting activities are managed by the State Sports Council. The importance attached to sports led to the construction of a stadium complex. The facilities available at the stadium complex are mainbowl, indoor sports hall, hostel, recreational press center as well as an Olympic size swimming pool. The state is actively represented both in football and basketball. The state is the home to the Kwara United Football Club and Kwara Falcons Basketball Club

Notable People from Kwara State

  • Abubakar Olusola Saraki, politician
  • Abdulfatah Ahmed, banker and politician
  • Adamu Atta, politician
  • Sarah Alade,Former CBN governor
  • Adebayo Salami, actor and producer
  • Ahmed Mohammed Inuwa, politician
  • Bukola Saraki, politician
  • Bola Shagaya, Oil Magnate
  • Cornelius Adebayo, politician
  • David Bamigboye, soldier
  • David Oyedepo, cleric
  • Gbemisola Ruqayyah Saraki, politician
  • Ibrahim Gambari, diplomat
  • Joseph Ayo Babalola, cleric
  • Kemi Adesoye, screenwriter
  • Kunle Afolayan, actor and film director
  • Lágbájá, musician
  • Lai Mohammed, lawyer and politician
  • Mohammed Lawal, naval officer
  • Mohammed Shaaba Lafiagi, politician
  • Mustapha Akanbi, lawyer
  • Ola Ibrahim, naval officer
  • Rashidi Yekini, soccer player
  • Salaudeen Latinwo, soldier
  • Salihu Modibbo Alfa Belgore, former Chief Justice
  • Simon Ajibola, politician
  • Theophilus Bamigboye, soldier and politician
  • Tunde Adebimpe, musician
  • Tunde Idiagbon, soldier
  • Wasiu Alabi Pasuma, musician

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History

History of Kano State, Nigeria

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About Kano State

Kano State is a state located in North-Western Nigeria. Created on May 27, 1967 from part of the Northern Region, Kano state borders Katsina State to the north-west, Jigawa State to the north-east, and Bauchi and Kaduna states to the south. The capital of Kano State is Kano.

Kano State is the second largest industrial center in Nigeria and the largest in Northern Nigeria with textile, tanning, footwear, cosmetics, plastics, enamelware, pharmaceuticals, ceramics, furniture and other industries. Others include agricultural implements, soft drinks, food and beverages, dairy products, vegetable oil, animal feeds etc.

History

The Hausa Kingdom of Kano was based on an ancient settlement of Dalla Hill. While small chiefdoms were previously present in the area, according to the Kano Chronicle, Bagauda, a grandson of the mythical hero Bayajidda,. became the first king of Kano in 999, reigning until 1063. Muhammad Rumfa ascended to the throne in 1463 and reigned until 1499.

During his reign he reformed the city, expanded the Sahelian Gidan Rumfa (Emir’s Palace), and played a role in the further Islamization of the city as he urged prominent residents to convert. The Hausa state remained independent until the Fulani conquest of 1805.

At the beginning of the 19th century, Fulani Islamic leader Usman dan Fodio led a jihad affecting much of northern Nigeria, leading to the emergence of the Sokoto Caliphate. Kano became the largest and most prosperous province of the empire. This was one of the last major slave societies, with high percentages of enslaved population long after the Atlantic slave trade had been cut off.

Heinrich Barth, a classical scholar who spent several years in northern Nigeria in the 1850s, estimated the percentage of slaves in Kano to be at least 50%, most of whom lived in slave villages.
The Kano Chronicle stated that the Kingdom of Kano was founded as one of the Seven True Hausa States or Hausa Bakwai by Baguada in 999. Bagauda was a grandson of Abuyazidu (Bayajda), who was acknowledged by legend to be the origin of the Hausa people. During the rule of King Gajemasu from 1095 to 1134, the kingdom’s capital was transferred from Sheme towards the current location. In 1340s, Islam was introduced to Kano by Malinke scholars, who originated from Mali Empire. Yaji, who ruled from 1349 to 1385, may have been the first Muslim king of Hausa. The religion Islam got the blame for Kano’s loss against Zaria around 1400 and it was relinquished by King Kanajeji.

People & Culture

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According to the 2016 PON census (unofficial) figures from Nigeria Kano State had a population totaling 9,383,682. Officially, Kano State is the most populous state in the country. The state is mostly populated by Hausa people.
The official language of Kano State is Hausa language, but Fulani languages is commonly spoken.

Geography

Kano State of the Federal Republic of Nigeria lies between latitude 130N in the North and 110N in the South and longitude 80W in the West and 100E in the East. Kano State is made up of the following forty four local government areas: Ajingi, Albasu, Bagwai, Bebeji, Bichi, Bunkure, Dala, Dambatta, Dawakin Kudu, Dawakin Tofa, Doguwa, Gabasawa, Garko, Garun Mallam, Gaya, Gezawa, Gwale, Gwarzo, Kabo, Karaye, Kibiya, Kiru, Kumbotso, Kura, Kunchi, Madobi, Makoda, Minjibir, Kano Municipal, Nassarawa, Rimin Gado, Rogo, Shanono, Sumaila, Takai, Tarauni, Tsanyawa, Tudun Wada, Tofa, Warawa and Wudil. The total land area of Kano State is 20,760sq kilometers with a population of 9,383,682 (2006 provisional result). Some Local Government areas of Jigawa State were part of Kano Emirate before the creation of that state. The people of Kano State who have no other hometown call themselves Kanawa.

Kano City has been the capital of Kano State since the earliest recorded time. It is located on latitude 12.000N and longitude 8.300E within the semi-arid Sudan savannah zone of West Africa about 840 kilometers from the edge of the Sahara desert. Kano has a mean height of about 472.45m above sea level.

Kano City has expanded over the years and has become the third largest conurbation in Nigeria; it had a population of 1,412,255 when the last population census was conducted in 1991. It is made up of six local government areas: Municipal, Gwale, Dala, Tarauni, Nassarawa and Fagge. Kano’s most enduring legacy Gidan Rumfa (Emir’s Palace) the seat of Kano’s prestigious Sarauta institution (Kingship) built over five hundred years ago is located in the Municipal Local Government Area. The Kano State Government House is located in Tarauni Local Government Area.

Climate

The temperature of Kano usually ranges between a maximum of 330C and a minimum of 15.80C although sometimes during the harmattan it falls down to as low as 100C. Kano has two seasonal periods, which consist of four to five months of wet season and a long dry season lasting from October to April. The movement of the South West maritime air masses originating from the Atlantic Ocean, influences the wet season which starts from May and ends in September. The commencement and length of wet season varies between northern and southern parts of Kano State. The length of the season in Riruwai, which is southern part of Kano State is six months from early May to late September. While in northern parts it is from June to early September.

The average rainfall is between 63.3mm + 48.2mm in May and 133.4mm + 59mm in August the wettest month. The movement of the tropical maritime air masses from the Southwest to the North determines the weather of Kano State during the wet season. This air mass carries a lot of moisture from over the Atlantic Ocean. This moisture condenses when it is forced to rise by convection or over a barrier of highlands or an air mass; it then falls back as rain. The period of the heights occurs when the sun passes over West Africa between March and June.

The dry season starts in October and lasts till about April of the following year. Temperatures are low during this period because the sun is in the Southern Hemisphere and because of movement of the desiccating continental air mass, which originates from the Sahara area and blows from the Northeast carrying along with it the harmattan dust. This is also the harvesting season.

Vegetation

The vegetation of Kano State is the semi-arid savannah. The Sudan Savannah is sandwiched by the Sahel Savannah in the north and the Guinea Savannah in the south. The savannah has been described as the zone that provides opportunity for optimal human attainment. This is because it is rich in faunal and floral resources, it is suitable for both cereal agriculture and livestock rearing, and the environment is relatively easy for movement of natural resources and manufactured goods (Connah 1987: 97-99).

The canopies of the trees are very wide and most of them are less than 20m tall. The following are the common trees of Kano State: Acacia albida (Hausa: gawo), Acacia nilotica (Hausa: gabaruwa), baobab Adanosia digitata (Hausa: kuka), Anogeissus leiocarpus (Hausa: marke), neem Azadirachta indica (Hausa: dogon yaro), desert date Balanties aegyptica (Hausa aduwa), ebony Diospyros mespiliformis (Hausa: kanya), mahogany Khaya senegalensis (Hausa: madachi), locust bean Parkia clappertoniana (Hausa: dorawa), Piliostigma thonningii (Hausa: kargo), Sclerocarya birrea (Hausa: danya), Vitex doniana (Hausa: dinya), Ziziphus spina-christi (Hausa: kurna) (Nichol 1988). These trees are very resistant to drought.

It has been suggested that these products have been available as part of the vegetable resources in the West African savannah for two to three thousand years. Domesticated crops include sorghum, millet and African rice, several indigenous yams, two African groundnuts, cowpeas and black beniseed (Connah 1987:101).

The natural vegetation of Kano State has been modified as result of several centuries of human activities such as bush clearing and burning for cultivation and hunting as well as animal grazing.

Economy and society

Agriculture

Subsistence and commercial agriculture is mostly practiced in the outlying districts of the state. Some of the food crops cultivated are millet, cowpeas, sorghum, maize and rice for local consumption while groundnuts and cotton are produced for export and industrial purposes. During the colonial period and several years after the country’s independence, the groundnuts produced in the state constituted one of the major sources revenue of the country. Kano State is a major producer of hides and skins, sesame, soybean, cotton, garlic, gum arabic and chili pepper.

Related Post: Mallam Aminu Kano International Airport and Location

Commerce

Commercial activities in Kano first developed with the establishment of the Kurmi market by the Emir of Kano Muhammadu Rumfa in the 16th Century CE. Subsequent leaders made contributions to the emergence of Kano as a leading commercial center in Sudanic Africa. During the Caliphate period in the 19th century the Emirs Ibrahim Dabo and Sulaimanu encouraged traders to move from Katsina, capitalising on raids from the Hausa Sultanate of Maradi. The Jihad leaders of the Caliphate encouraged Kola nut trade and Kano was the greatest beneficiary with an annual turnover of about $30 million. Craft industries also evolved in the pre-colonial period contributing to the prosperity of the province.

Industry

Kano State is the second largest industrial center after Lagos State in Nigeria and the largest in Northern Nigeria with textile, tanning, footwear, cosmetics, plastics, enamelware, pharmaceuticals, ceramics, furniture and other industries. Others include agricultural implements, soft drinks, food and beverages, dairy products, vegetable oil, animal feeds etc.

Tourism

The tourist attractions in the state include:

  • Kurmi Market established in the 15th century,
  • Kano’s centuries-old city wall,
  • Gidan Rumfa (Emir’s Palace, the oldest continuous site of authority in Nigeria)
  • kano zoo. Zoo road

Universities

Kano state is blessed with universities which include one federal, two states universities and one first private university.

  • Bayero University Kano (BUK) founded in the year 1977.
  • Kano State University of Technology (KUT), currently Kano University of Science and Technology (KUST), created in the year 2000.
  • Yusuf Maitama Sule University Kano (YUSMUK), formerly known as North West University, Kano (NWU, kano) established in 2012.
  • Skyline University Nigeria (SUN) founded in the year 2018.

Research Centers

The research centers and institute in Kano State:

  • Aminu Kano Center for Democratic Research & Training
  • Center For Research and Documentation, Kano
  • Institute For Agricultural Research, Kano
  • Digital Bridge Institute, Kano

Polytechnics and Colleges

List of the approved Polytechnics and Colleges in the state of Kano.

  • Federal College of Education, Kano
  • Federal College of Education (Technical), Bichi
  • Federal College of Agricultural Produce Technology, Kano
  • Kano State Polytechnic
  • Kano State School of Health Technology
  • Kano State School of Hygiene
  • Kano state College of Arts, Sciences and Remedial Studies (CAS,Kano)
  • Rabi’u Musa Kwankwaso College of Advance and Remedial Studies (RMK CARS,T/Wada)
  • Audu Bako School of Agriculture, Dambatta
  • Aminu Kano College of Islamic and Legal Studies, Kano
  • Sa’adatu Rimi College of Education, Kano
  • Aminu Dabo School of Health Sciences & Technology

Local Government Areas

Kano State consists of forty-four (44) Local Government Areas (LGAs). They are:

LGA Name Area (km2) Census 2006
population
Administrative capital Postal
Code
Local Government Chairman and the Head of the Local Government Council
Fagge 21 200,095 Waje 700 Alh. Habibu Saleh Mai Lemo (APC)
Dala 19 418,759 Gwanmaja 700 Alh. Ibrahim Suleiman Dan’isle (APC)
Gwale 18 357,827 Gwale 700 Alh. Abdullahi Zubair Imam (APC)
Kano Municipal 17 371,243 Kofar Kudu 700 Alh. Mukhtari Ishaq Yakasai (APC)
Tarauni 28 221,844 Unguwa Uku 700 Engr. (Dr.) Mukhtar Umar Zakari (APC)
Nassarawa 34 596,411 Bompai 700 Alh. Lamin Sani Kawaji (APC)
Kumbotso 158 294,391 Kumbotso 700 Alh. Lawan Isma’il (APC)
Ungogo 204 365,737 Ungogo 700 Alh. Shehu Aliyu Ungogo (APC)
Kano Metropolitan Area 499 2,828,861 700
Dawakin Tofa 479 246,197 Dawakin Tofa 701 Alh. Saleh Rabiu (APC)
Tofa 202 98,603 Tofa 701 Alh. Yaro Inuwa (APC)
Rimin Gado 225 103,371 Rimin Gado 701 Alh. Halliru Audu Yalwa (APC)
Bagwai 405 161,533 Bagwai 701 Alh. Ado Isyaku Daddauda (APC)
Gezawa 340 282,328 Gezawa 702 Alh. Ibrahim Isa Jogana (APC)
Gabasawa 605 211,204 Zakirai 702 Alh. Ghali Adamu Garun Danga (APC)
Minjibir 416 219,611 Minjibir 702 Alh. Nasiru Garba Kunya (APC)
Dambatta 732 210,474 Dambatta 702 Muhammadu Audu Wango (APC)
Makoda 441 220,094 Makoda 702 Abubakar Salisu Makoda (APC)
Kunchi 671 110,170 Kunchi 703 Alh. Aminu Adamu Gwarmai (APC)
Bichi 612 278,309 Bichi 703 Alh. Muhammad Sani Muqaddas (APC)
Tsanyawa 492 157,730 Tsanyawa 703 Alh. Safiyanu Muhammad (APC)
Shanono 697 139,128 Shanono 704 Alh. Malami Ibrahim Shanono (APC)
Gwarzo 393 183,624 Gwarzo 704 Alh. Sunusi Abdullahi Gwarzo (APC)
Karaye 479 144,045 Karaye 704 Alh. Ibrahim Ahmad Karaye (APC)
Rogo 802 227,607 Rogo 704 Alh. Abubakar Mustapha Rogo (APC)
Kabo 341 153,158 Kabo 704 Alh. Mamuda Idris Kabo (APC)
Northern Kano State 8,332 3,143,899 701 to 704
Bunkure 487 174,467 Bunkure 710 Alh. Rabiu Bala (APC)
Kibiya 404 138,618 Kibiya 710 Yusuf Shehu Kibiya (APC)
Rano 520 148,276 Rano 710 Alh. Muhammadu Ubale Dan-Kawu (APC)
Tudun Wada 1,204 228,658 Tudun Wada 710 Engr. Ibrahim Nayola (APC)
Doguwa 1,473 150,645 Riruwai 710 Alh. Ali Abdu Doguwa (APC)
Madobi 273 137,685 Madobi 711 Alh. Lurwanu Umar Kanwa (APC)
Kura 206 143,094 Kura 711 Alh. Basiru Abubakar Turaki (APC)
Garun Mallam 214 118,622 Garun Mallam 711 Alh. Sa’adu Abashe (APC)
Bebeji 717 191,916 Bebeji 711 Alh. Mudansir Umar Bebeji (APC)
Kiru 927 267,168 Kiru 711 Nasiru Mu’azu Kiru (APC)
Sumaila 1,250 250,379 Sumaila 712 Abdulhamid Idris Rimi (APC)
Garko 450 161,966 Garko 712 Arc. Hamza Said Garun Ali (APC)
Takai 598 202,639 Takai 712 Alh. Inusa Abdullahi Dambazau (APC)
Albasu 398 187,639 Albasu 712 Alh. Hamisu Abdulhamid (APC)
Gaya 613 207,419 Gaya 713 Alh. Lawan Saleh (APC)
Ajingi 714 172,610 Ajingi 713 Alh. Isa Abdulkadir Tsangaya (APC)
Wudil 362 188,639 Wudil 713 Bello Abubakar (APC)
Warawa 360 131,858 Warawa 713 Alh. Ibrahim Abdullahi Danlasan (APC)
Dawakin Kudu 384 225,497 Dawakin Kudu 713 Alh. Maikudi Yusuf ‘Yargaya (APC)
Southern Kano State 11,554 3,410,922 710 to 713

Languages

The official language of Kano State is Hausa language, but Fulani languages is commonly spoken.

Population

According to the 2006 PON census figures from Nigeria Kano State had a population totaling 9,401,288. Officially, Kano State is the most populous state in the country. The state is mostly populated by Hausa people.

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History

History of Kaduna State, Nigeria

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Geography

The state is located at the Northern part of Nigeria’s High Plains. The vegetation cover is Sudan Savannah type, characterized by scattered short trees, shrubs and grasses. The soil is mostly loamy to sandy type. A substantial amount of clay is found also.

History Kaduna State.

Until the late eighties when Kaduna State seemed to have slid into intermittent sectarian and ethnic violence, its capital city, Kaduna, was one of the most peaceful, cosmopolitan and politically important cities in Nigeria. These crises have, however, merely diminished rather than eliminated the city’s virtues, thanks largely to the effective measures the authorities in the state adopted from 2000, the year of the worst crisis, to curb the hostilities in the state.

Established in 1912 by Lord Frederick Lugard, first as a garrison town and then as the regional capital of the then Northern Protectorate, Kaduna soon attracted people of all races, religions and cultures. Within two decades of its establishment, it grew from an almost virgin territory of small scattered settlements of the indigenous population, mostly the Gbagyi, to a town of over 30,000 people. This population comprised the British colonizers, artisans from other West African British colonies, artisans and clerks from the Southern Protectorate as well as labourers and traders from the Hausa, Nupe, Kanuri, Fulani and other tribes in the Northern Protectorate.

By 1963 the town had about 250,000 residents and nearly 30 years later, the 1991 census put its population at 1,307,311, a little over a third of the population of the entire state.

Kaduna’s history reflects that of the North in particular and Nigeria in general. This history dates back before 1912, the year Lord Lugard chose it to become the dual capital of the North and Nigeria. The road to Kaduna actually started in 1900 when Lord Lugard was first appointed the High Commissioner of the Northern Protectorate. At that time Lokoja, at the confluence of the mighty rivers Niger and Benue, was the centre of British missionary activities and British trade. It was also the headquarters for its wars of occupation of the North.

Lugard first settled in Lokoja as regional capital to continue with the colonial conquest of the region. Two years later, i.e in 1902, he moved the capital from Lokoja further upstream of River Niger, to Jebba. However, Jebba remained the headquarters for only a few months. Towards the end of the year, he moved even further upstream to Zungeru with the intention of making it the permanent capital of the North. Many Nigerians will remember Zungeru, a major railway town, as the birth place of Nigeria’s foremost nationalist and first president, Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe. His father had worked there as a railway staff.

For a while it seemed as if Zungeru had succeeded where Lokoja and Jebba had failed; it remained the regional capital for 10 years. However, with time, Lord Lugard himself began to doubt the wisdom of his choice especially given the vastness of the North which had been “pacified” by 1906. He then began a search for a more central and more accessible location than Zungeru.

His search finally ended at a location on the Zaria plains, roughly in the middle of the region. Not only was Kaduna centrally located and much more accessible than Zungeru, the Zaria plains in which it was located were well served by two major tributaries of River Niger, River Kaduna, which gave the settlement its name, and River Gurara. River Kaduna itself was so called because it was crocodile infested, kadduna being the plural of ‘crocodile’ in Hausa.

Apart from its centrality, accessibility and abundant water supply, the location also possessed a clement environment. Also, following the not-too-happy relationship of the colonialists with the large indigenous population of Lagos as capital of the Lagos Colony and Calabar as capital of the Southern Protectorate, the British considered the virginity of a location an important consideration in their choice of a capital. Kaduna, with its sparse and scattered settlement of the indigenous population, satisfied this criterion.

No sooner had Lord Lugard settled down in Kaduna as regional capital in 1912, than he began to plan for it as Nigeria’s capital, ahead of the amalgamation of the Northern and Southern Protectorates in 1914. This followed his promotion that same year as Governor-General of the amalgamated Nigeria. As Governor-General, he did not hide his antipathy towards Lagos and recommended that the capital be moved to Kaduna as quickly as possible. “Government House, Lagos,” he wrote in one of his papers, “would make an excellent hotel if the transfer to Kaduna was achieved.”

The transfer was never achieved. First, the Colonial Office in London thought Kaduna was too far inland for quick and effective communication between motherland and colony. Second, in 1919, Lord Lugard was succeeded as Governor-General by Lord Clifford, who did not share Lugard’s loathing for Lagos. In any case, such a transfer was considered too expensive an exercise by the British.

And so it was that Lugard could not fulfill his wish to see Kaduna become the capital of both the North and Nigeria. However, as the capital of the biggest region in the country – at 730,885 square meters the North was more than three times the size of the Western and Eastern Regions combined. It was also the most populous – Kaduna City was to assume an unmatched political importance in the country, not least because it became the headquarters of the Northern Peoples’ Congress. The NPC eventually became the ruling political party in the North and the senior partner in a coalition government at the centre up to the first military coup in January 1966.

The political status of Kaduna before independence rose a notch higher when a group of Western-educated Northerners led by the late Dr. R.A.B. (Russel Aliyu Barau) Dikko, the region’s first medical doctor, founded the Jam’iyyan Mutanen Arewa A Yau (Association of Northerners Today), in 1948 in the city, ostensibly as a cultural association. The JMA transformed into a political party in October 1951 and subsequently chose Sir Ahmadu Bello to lead it. It held its first convention in Kaduna in July 1952.

The most important symbol of the city’s political importance was and remains the Lugard Hall Complex, named after Lord Lugard. Located at the heart of Kaduna and painted in the national colours of green and white, the complex with its prominent dome sits on a large expanse of land that forms a huge roundabout bound almost right round by Coronation Crescent and by the northern end of the broad Independence Way on its southern entrance. It served as the regional House of Assembly and House of Chiefs during the First Republic. Today it serves as Kaduna State’s House of Assembly.

In addition to being the political capital of the North, Kaduna soon developed into a pre-eminent center of media ( Broadcasting Company of Northern Nigeria, New Nigerian and the defunct Today, Hotline, Democrat, Citizen and Reporter) and of commerce and industry in the region and in Nigeria. These developments started in 1957 as the city became the most important hub of the country’s railway network connecting Lagos to Kano, Port Harcourt to Maiduguri and Baro, the country’s then biggest and busy inland port on River Niger.

The Arewa House lies on twenty acres of beautifully wooded land with equally beautiful landscape in the quiet neighbourhood of the former Ministers’ Quarters. It is located on No. 1 Rabah Road, on the grounds of the official residence of Sir Ahmadu Bello, the regional premier who was assassinated in the first military coup in the country.

Apart from the Arewa House, Kaduna has a large concentration of educational institutions including the Kaduna Polytechnic, possibly the largest in Africa, and the Nigerian Defence Academy, which doubles as a military training institution for officers of the Nigerian military and a degree awarding institution.

Local Government Areas

Kaduna State consists of twenty-three (23) Local Government Areas. They are:

  • Birnin Gwari
  • Chikun
  • Giwa
  • Igabi
  • Ikara
  • Jaba
  • Jema’a
  • Kachia
  • Kaduna North
  • Kaduna South
  • Kagarko
  • Kajuru
  • Kaura
  • Kauru
  • Kubau
  • Kudan
  • Lere
  • Makarfi
  • Sabon Gari
  • Sanga
  • Soba
  • Zangon Kataf
  • Zaria

Demographics

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Kaduna State, north central Nigeria, is politically classified as belonging to the now ‘North – West’ zone of the current six Geo – political zones of Nigeria. It is populated by about 59 to 63 different ethnic groups, if not more, with the exactitude of the number requiring further verification through genuine field work [Hayab, 2014]. The question as in the last paragraph with the Hausa and Fulani as the dominant ethnic groups followed by at least 60 others. These groups include:

  1. Adara (dubbed Kadara)
  2. Akurmi (labelled Kurama by the Hausa)
  3. Anghan (dubbed Kamanton by the Hausa)
  4. Amo
  5. Aruruma (named Ruruma by the Hausa)
  6. Atachaat (dubbed Kachechere)
  7. Atyab (dubbed Kataf by the Hausa)
  8. Ayu
  9. Bajju (dubbed Kaje by the Hausa)
  10. Bakulu (Ikulu by the Hausa)
  11. Bhazar (named Koro)
  12. Bur (Sanga)
  13. Binawa
  14. Dingi
  15. Fantswam
  16. Fulfulde
  17. Gbagyi (Gwari in Hausa)
  18. Gure
  19. Gwandara
  20. Gwong (Kagoma in Hausa)
  21. Ham (dubbed Jaba in Hausa, which is a derogatory name)
  22. Hausa
  23. Jangi (dubbed Gwari by the Hausa)
  24. Kaibi
  25. Kahugu
  26. Kanufi
  27. Kigono
  28. Kinugu
  29. Kitimi
  30. Kiwafa
  31. Kiwollo
  32. Koro
  33. Kuvori (called Surubu)
  34. Kuturmi
  35. Lemoro * not sure
  36. Mada (Mardan) Mada must have migrated during colonial rule
  37. Nandu
  38. Nduyah
  39. Numana
  40. Nindem
  41. Ningeshe
  42. Ninkyop
  43. Ninzo
  44. Nyenkpa (Yeskwa)
  45. Oegworok
  46. Pikal
  47. Pitti
  48. Ribang
  49. Rishuwa
  50. Rumada
  51. Ruruma
  52. Rumayya
  53. Shemawa * Hausa name?
  54. Sholio (Dubbed Marwa)
  55. Siyawa (Bauchi state?)
  56. Takad, (Attakar)
  57. Tarri
  58. Tsam (Chawai)
  59. Tuku (Atuku by the Hausa)

Available records show that Christian mission activities in the area began formally in the 1900s with the establishment of Sudan Interior Mission (S.I.M.) in the Ham town of Har Kwain (Kwoi), hence today these people groups are Mainly Christians. Culturally, the people groups of the then southern Zaria who are now Southern Kaduna, with some exception it must be acknowledged, share a lot in the cultural practices of marriage rites, naming, burial, farming, social organisations, kinship, etc. Until full scale research is undertaken, the diversity of Kaduna state remains blurred as some ethnic groups are so small in population that they are often overshadowed by the larger groups who live near them.

See Also: Kaduna International Airport and Location

Education

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Kaduna is one of the education centers in Nigeria, with many tertiary institutions.

  • Nigeria Defence Academy (NDA), Kaduna
  • Kaduna State University
  • College of Education Gidan Waya-Kafanchan
  • Shehu Idris College of Health Sciences And Technology, Makarfi
  • National Teachers Institute (NTI), Kaduna
  • School of Midwifery Kaduna
  • National Institute For Hospitality and Tourism
  • Kaduna Polytechnic (1968), Kaduna
  • Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research (1951)
  • Federal Government College Kaduna
  • Kaduna International School (KIS)
  • Nigerian Tulip International College
  • Danbo International College
  • Essence International School
  • Zamani College
  • Barewa College
  • Sardauna Memorial College
  • Kaduna Capital School

Health

Kaduna State has over 1,000 primary healthcare facilities to cater to every resident – even in the most remote village or ward of the state. To further improve on healthcare delivery, in 2016, the Kaduna State Government partnered with the UK Department For International Development (DFID) to install over 1.3MW of Solar Systems in primary healthcare facilities across the state

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History

History of Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria

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History of Federal Capital Territory Nigeria

About Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria

The Federal Capital Territory, commonly known as FCT, or loosely as FCT-Abuja, is a federal territory in central Nigeria. Abuja, the capital city of Nigeria, is located in this territory. FCT was formed in 1976 from parts of the states of Nasarawa, Niger and Kogi. It is within the Middle Belt region of the country. Unlike the States of Nigeria, which are headed by elected Governors, it is administered by the Federal Capital Territory Administration, headed by a minister appointed by the President.

See: Nnamdi Azikiwe International Airport and Location

The Federal Capital Territory (FCT) is the area that hosts Abuja. It was carved out in 1976 from parts of Nasarawa, Niger, and Kogi States in the central part of Nigeria.

The Federal Capital Territory is governed by a Minister (appointed by the President) who heads the Federal Capital Territory Administration, FCTA.

The FCTA was created on 31st December 2004; before the creation of FCTA, the territory was governed by the Ministry of the Federal Capital Territory (MFCT).

Geography

The territory is located just north of the confluence of the Niger River and Benue River. It is bordered by the states of Niger to the West and North, Kaduna to the northeast, Nasarawa to the east and south and Kogi to the southwest.

Lying between latitude 8.25 and 9.20 north of the equator and longitude 6.45 and 7.39 east of Greenwich Meridian, Abuja is geographically located in the center of the country.

The Federal Capital Territory has a landmass of approximately 7,315 km2, and it is situated within the Savannah region with moderate climatic conditions.

Natural Resources in FCT

Minerals found in the FCT include marble, tin, clay, mica, and tantalite.

Wildlife

The hills of the FCT provide home to many bushbuck, forest Black duiker, bush pig, chimpanzee and red-flanked duiker. Also found in FCT woodland are leopard, buffalo, roan antelope, Western hartebeest, elephant, warthog, grey duiker, dog-faced baboon, patas monkey and green monkey.

Administration

While the FCTA administers the whole of the FCT, The Federal Capital Development Authority (FCDA) specifically manages the construction and infrastructure development of the region. The Federal Capital City (FCC) Abuja is located inside the wider Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC).

The territory is currently made up of six local councils, comprising the City of Abuja and five Local Government Areas, namely:

  • Abaji
  • Abuja Municipal
  • Gwagwalada
  • Kuje
  • Bwari
  • Kwali

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